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Alphabetical List of Perennial Flowers: Perennial Flowers E-H

In this second installment of the Alphabetical List of Perennials, I will continue my study of perennial flowers, this time focusing on the flowers which begin with the letters E-H. This list will give a brief description of each flower. In future articles, select flower species will be individually investigated.

Many of the perennial flowers on this list have important uses in industry and society, past and present. It is important to mention that flowers are used for more than just gardens. As you will read below, some of these flowers are even used in Pharmaceuticals and to make Paper.

Skip to section: E   F   G   H

Perennial Flowers: E

Echinacea Angustifolia - Characterized by its many powerfully purple blossoms which grow in clusters to form an inflorescence up to four feet tall, Echinacea Angustifolia, or simply 'Echinacea' is prized by some apothecaries for its value in herbal medicine. Thought to enhance the immune system, Echinacea is often taken as a traditional remedy for the cold, though scientific tests have not yet found any proof of its efficacy.

Echinacea

English Daisy - The English Daisy is the same as the common daisy. Its bright white petals surround a yellow floret and many of its tiny flowers grow in clusters. The English Daisy is the "Children's" Flower in popular culture.

English Primrose - Distinct from other primroses, the English Primrose is an evergreen plant with perennial flowers which thrives in the Northern Hemisphere in mild and cool climates, especially in Europe as far north as Norway. Known as one of the first flowers of Spring, English Primroses are small mounds of soft white to yellow fragrant flowers, with some cultivars having blue-colored blossoms. This perennial flower and its leaves are also edible.

Erica Hirtiflora - This rare and unusual perennial is native only to the area surrounding Cape Town, South Africa. Now grown in gardens for its grape-shaped, purple hairy flowers, Erica Hirtiflora is evergreen and flowers the entire year, with a peak in late Spring.

Erigeron Glabellus - This member of the daisy family is also called the streamside fleabane and grows in the colder regions of North America, as far north as Alaska and as far south as the foothills of the Rocky Mountains in New Mexico. Erigeron grows unpredictably, with flower stalks bearing as few as one and as many as ten flowers.

Erysimum - This distant cousin of the broccoli and cabbage plants is a small herbaceous perennial shrub which is tipped in tiny flowers. The colors of the flowers are diverse, with pink, red, white and yellow subspecies being observed.

Euphorbia - Euphorbia describes an entire genus of plants too diverse to pick a solitary specimen for review. There are over 2000 species of Euphorbia, and not all of them are perennial, nor does every species grow flowers. Nevertheless, perennial, flowering varieties of this plant do exist. Euphorbia has so many different species that it includes plants such as succulents, small trees, as well as ornamental plants like Poinsettia.

Everlasting Daisy - Known as Strawflowers in Australia, Everlasting Daisies can be either perennial or annual, depending on the cultivar. These bright yellow flowers are reminiscent of marigolds, though they grow on distinctly different foliage. Its yellow petals surround an orange disc floret.

Evolvulus Glomeratus - This member of the morning glory family is actually known as the "Brazillian Dwarf Morning Glory." These plants produce large, bright blue flowers with white centers, without the yellow typically found in regular morning glory flowers. This plant is evergreen in Brazil, and continually produces flowers.

Perennial Flowers: F

Feverfew - Also called Bachelor's Buttons, Feverfew is traditionally grown as a remedy for migraines, diarrhea, and arthritis. Feverfew contains a substance called parthenolide, which has been shown to kill cancer cells through via programmed cell death, or Apoptosis. A member of the daisy family, the flowers are comprised of short rounded white florets which surround a central yellow disc.

Figwort - There are over 200 species of figworts, also known as the Scrophularia family. Figwort is grown for it's value in traditional medicine, as it is said to be beneficial in the treatment of tuberculosis. Figwort grows clusters of two-lipped flowers, which are green to red or purple in color.

Fleabane - See Erigeron

Flowering Crabapple - Flowering Crabapple produces clusters of flowers similar to an Apple tree, with pink or red buds surrounding yellow stamen. This impressive tree can resemble a pink cloud of flowers during the Spring. Since it is susceptible to disease, cultivar choice must be carefully considered; there are many cultivars, some resistant to disease and rot. Flowering Crabapple can grow up to fifty feet tall.

Flowering Dogwood - Growing down the East coast from Maine to Mexico, and as far inland as Texas and Oklahoma, Flowering Dogwood produces many flowers which each have four large petals surrounding a cluster of tiny flowers. The petals can vary in color from white to Pink.

Flowering Peach - This is one of the most impressive flowering trees. Flowering Peach is ornamentally grown for its stunning flowers, which somewhat resemble carnations and seem to cover entire branches of the tree. The flowers come in red, pink or white, and early-flowering varieties are also available.

Flowering Quince - Flowering Quince is a deciduous shrub which produces perennial flowers in orange, pink or red. These shrubs are large and dense, and when in bloom produce countless flowers. This border shrub is hardy to zone 5.

Forsythia - A member of the Olive family, Forsythia is a large shrub which grows up to 10 feet tall, and sometimes up to 20 feet tall. In the spring, it is covered in yellow flowers on each branch from root to tip and can resemble a giant yellow cloud if grown to its full density.

Forsythia

Forget Me Not - These are a staple in North American and European gardens where moisture is plentiful. Forget Me Not flowers are clusters of five-petaled flowers, in either white, yellow, blue or pink, with yellow centers.

Four O’Clock Flower - This flower also goes by "Marvel of Peru" and is a strongly fragrant, large flower somewhat resembling a hibiscus flower. The flower is large enough to require long-tongued species of moths for pollination. One plant can produce many colored flowers, including yellow, pink and white. Four O'Clock Flower was traditionally grown by the Aztecs as medicine and is now studied in mainstream chemistry for its unique chemical makeup.

Foxglove - Also known as Digitalis, Foxgloves are 20 different species of flowering plants, with some being herbaceous perennials. Foxglove has several separate medicinal compounds which are used in the production of pharmacological compounds in the treatment of cardiac disorders.

Freesia - This fragrant perennial flower is hardy to zone 4 and will produce flowers in the spring, or in the autumn in warmer regions. Freesias produce six-tepal flowers in yellow and white. Freesia's fragrance is specific to the flower and is used as fragrance additive in cosmetics.

French Marigold - A member of the Daisy family, French Marigolds are actually native to Central America. These flowers are brightly colored in gold and orange and are incredibly useful in many applications, including food, medicine, fragrant essential oils, pesticide, coloring, and of course, they are also prized for their physical beauty when planted in gardens.

Fuschia - Endemic to South America, the Caribbean, Tahiti and a New Zealand in the Southern Hemisphere, Fuschias are hardy enough to tolerate cooler climates in the Northern Hemisphere as a perennial, thriving in places as far north as Ireland. They grow with minimal effort from the gardener and provide a major splash of color. Fuschias can be white, purple pink or red, and are perennials in cold climates, evergreen in warmer climates.

Fuji Cherry - This short-growing tree is covered with white flowers each spring and is prized for its beauty across the world. Fuji Cherry's flowers are fragrant and only grows up to 20 feet tall.

Perennial Flowers: G

Gaillardia Grandiflora - Also known as the blanket flower, Gaillardia Grandiflora is a member of the daisy family. The flowers of this plant are yellow-tipped, three-tipped petals with orange to red banding, culminating in a central orange to red disc floret.

Gaura - Gaura describes 22 different species of bee blossoms. These white, four-petaled flowers grow densely in fields and can be perennial, biennial or annual, depending on the species. They are considered invasive and hard to kill and should be grown with care.

Gentiana - Gentian can describe a flower that is blue, white, red, purple or violet. They are native to temperate alpine zones around the world and can be found Eurasia, the Americas, and New Zealand. The funnel-shaped flowers have either four or five petals and the blue cultivar is used to make a blue dye.

Geranium - Geraniums are fragrant perennial flowers that are also called Cranesbills. There are over 400 different varieties, some of which are valuable in pharmaceutical science. Geranium Essential Oil is often used by aromatherapists for its uplifting properties.

Geum Chiloense - The Geum flower goes by many names, such as the Grecian Rose. Chiloense refers to the perennial ornamental flower grown in gardens. The red flowers are reminiscent of roses, except for the occurrence of yellow central florets between the red petals. This flower is also used as a medicine by traditional Cultures in Chile, where it grows natively.

Gardenia - This tropical perennial grows stunning white-petaled flowers set against a dark evergreen shrub with leaves up to 20 inches long! Gardenias are very fragrant and are used as food, medicine, and are also used ornamentally. Gardenias are the flower typically worn by men as a boutonniere.

Gerbera - Gerbera describes an entire genus within the daisy family. Gerbera is native to tropical regions of Arica, Asia, and South America, and can be found in either orange, pink, red white or yellow. Gerberas are mainly grown as a cut flower, valued by florists.

Gladiolus - A member of the iris family, Gladiolus are corms which grow flowers perennially. The flowers can be found in white, red, pink, orange or yellow. Gladiolus is the official flower of the month of August.

Gloriosa Daisy - Gloriosa Daisies are three inch wide yellow-petaled flowers with black discs in their center. Growing up to three feet high, these flowers are typically used along borders in perennial flower gardens.

Goldenrod - A member of the daisy family, this herbaceous perennial does not resemble the typical daisy. Goldenrod is irresistible to bees, butterflies, wasps, and other flying insects. Goldenrod is used as a food, and since it naturally contains latex sap, was once used by Thomas Edison as a natural source of rubber. The tires on his Model T were made from Goldenrod.

Goldenrod

Grape Hyacinth - Unlike the flowers of other Hyacinths, the flowers of Grape Hyacinth are spherical and resemble grapes. They are grown as ornamental plants in perennial gardens.

Gypsophila - A genus within the Carnation family, these flowers are herbaceous perennials that are used both medicinally and in floral arrangements. The common name for flowers within this genus is Baby's Breath.

Perennial Flowers: H

Heather - Heather is a flower used in many different industries. Heather is used as food, as fodder, as a feed for bees for specialized honey, and even as a medicine for kidney disorders.

Hebe Flower - Hebes are beautiful flowers that are grown in gardens to attract pollinators. Butterflies are especially attracted to the colorful clusters of flowers, which can grow in shades of blue, pink or white. They grow well in coastal areas and are grown as hedges in Southwest England.

Helenium - A member of the Daisy family, Heleniums grow a dense cluster of bright yellow flowers with bulbous yellow to orange disc florets at their centers. Helenium is named after Helen of Troy. It was once used to make a snuff which would induce bouts of sneezing.

Helianthemum - Also known as the Rock Rose, Helianthemum are native to the Northern Hemisphere. These yellow five-petaled flowers with yellow stamen are ornamentally grown in rock gardens. They also come in pink, white and red varieties.

Helichrysum - Helichrysum is an herbaceous perennial available in many different colors and styles. It has been used to make essential oil, as well as in traditional herbal medicine for it's rumored ability to heal certain skin conditions caused by inflammation.

Heliotrope - A member of the borage family, Heliotrope is a perennial flower that is typically a purple color, though they grow in many different colors depending on the variety. The color Heliotrope is named after the color of this flower. Heliotrope is known to cause death to dogs who consume it due to its toxicity.

Hellebore - This herbaceous perennial is also called the Winter Rose. It grows as a medium-sized, five-lobed flower. The petals can be white, yellow, pale-green or pink. This flower is toxic due to the presence of Alkaloids and can cause skin irritation on contact.

Hibiscus - A favorite in gardens in temperate and tropical regions, Hibiscus is an herbaceous perennial which is useful to many industries. It is often grown alongside Peanuts on the farm. Hibiscus is used to make food, medicine, tea, beer, paper, and is also simply enjoyed in a garden. It grows large flowers in many different colors. Dried Hibiscus flowers used in tea have a taste reminiscent of strawberries.

Hollyhock - Hollyhock is normally grown as a perennial ornamental. The delicate purple, coned flowers with yellow centers are used in herbal medicine. The stalks of this plant are also used as fuel and are burned for heat in the winter. This flower is important to some cultures in Japan.

Honeysuckle - Honeysuckles are wonderfully fragrant, vining perennial flowers which will climb and cover walls with dense leafy foliage and beautiful white and yellow flowers. Although some Honeysuckle varieties are edible, some are toxic.

Honeysuckle

Hosta - A cousin of Asparagus, Hostas have large, broad leaves up to a foot wide, and a foot-and-a-half long. The flowers grow up out of the foliage in white, lavender and violet colors. Hostas are edible for people but are toxic to pets.

Hyacinth - Hyacinths are stunning, fragrant perennials native to the northern Mediterranean. They grow in a pineapple-shaped cluster of five-petaled, white, yellow, pink or dark blue flowers. Popular as a houseplant, Hyacinths are poisonous and should be kept away from pets.

Hydrangea - Hydrangeas are native to Asia and the Americas. They are evergreen shrubs, though they can be deciduous in cooler climates. The perennial flowers grow at the end of each stem. The color of the bloom on this plant can be controlled by the grower, as the acidity of the soil it is grown in determines its shade.

Hypericum - Hypericum is a special perennial because it can be found in polar regions, deserts, tropical forests, and any other condition. Hypericum is a genus that includes flowers such as St. John's Wort. These flowers are used in traditional medicine to treat depression to help wounds to heal. Some Hypericum species have shown potential to reduce the side effects of opiate withdrawal.

To continue reading this list of perennial flowers, visit the following pages:
            M-P       Q-T       U-Z

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