Skip to main content

Alphabetical List of Perennial Flowers: Perennial Flowers A-D

Perennial flowers are flowers which can grow back every season, typically after observing a dormant cycle during the Winter months. The flowers will regrow if they are grown in specific conditions that are ideal for the species. Compared to the shorter-lived annual and biennial species, which live for one or two years, respectively, perennial flowers can thrive and continue to regrow for many years. These flowers come in all sizes, shapes, and colors, and the wide variety of perennials means there is an option for most gardens, regardless of hardiness zone or sunlight availability.

There are many thousands of varieties of perennial plants. Perennial plants and flowers are distinguished from trees in their lack of hardened bark and woody-growth. Deciduous Trees are also technically (and arguably) perennials because they also go dormant during the Autumn and Winter, and regrow their leaves and flowers in the spring.

The focus of this list of perennial flowers will be on the flowering perennial species and the most common and available species thereof. I will concentrate my study on perennial flowering shrubs, plants, vines and ground cover, in addition to several trees which grow impressive flowers of their own. New perennials will be added to the list as I discover and study them.

Skip to section: A   B   C   D

Perennial Flowers: A

Achillea Millefolium - Also known as Yarrow. Achillea Millefolium is Native to temperate regions in the northern hemisphere, including Asia, Europe, and North America. It grows clusters of small white or yellow flowers. Yarrow has been used by Humans as a medicine for thousands of years.

African Daisy - Half-hardy perennials which can grow in many colors. Hardy to 30 degrees. In cooler regions, it is grown as an annual. More than 35 varieties are found throughout Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Some varieties have “Spooned Petals.”

African Daisy

Agapanthus - Agapanthus is also known as Lily of the Nile. It is an herbaceous perennial which is only hardy in zones 9-11. It can be kept in a greenhouse or brought indoors in cooler regions. Beautiful clusters of delicate purple or blue flowers are characteristic of this perennial.

Allium Bisceptrum - Allium Bisceptrum is also called the Twincrest Onion. This plant thrives in damp, shady regions and meadows in the Western United States. Striking purple clusters of six-petaled flowers set this apart from other cultivars, which generally have white flowers.

Alstroemeria - Also called the Peruvian Lily, Alstroemeria is native to South America but has been successfully introduced all across the world. Different varieties thrive in different seasons. The stems can be up to five feet long and the flowers can grow in shades of any color, including multi-colored and speckled variants.

Amaranthus - Amaranthus is more commonly called Amaranth. Perennial varieties are grown as a food source for both humans and livestock. The tiny flowers grow in clusters called inflorescences. Ornamental varieties have purple or red flowers.

Anchusa - A member of the borage family, Anchusa has small clusters of tiny blue flowers with five sepals and petals on each flower.

Anemone - Anemone are traditionally called “Wind Flowers.” This clumping plant has between 2-9 flowers per cluster. Red, blue, purple and white flowers can be observed on the Anemone.

Aster - Asters are perennial flowers that grow in any hardiness zone. Asters are beautiful flowers that grow in groups. A favorite among gardeners, Asters have been cultivated in many different colors and varieties.

Astilbe - The foliage of Astilbe resembles a fern, and the flowers grow in brilliant plumes of red. This American/Asian-native is both fragrant and beautiful.

Aurinia Saxatillis - Also known as the "Basket of Gold," the Aurinia Saxatillis grows small clusters of bright, golden-yellow flowers. The foliage is evergreen. Ideal for rocky soil or in rock gardens, or in any soil with excellent drainage. This plant is prone to root rot when over-watered.

Azalea - Azaleas are members of the Rhododendron family which have been selectively cultivated for centuries. The color spring-blooming flowers require acidic soil to thrive, and may grow for many decades in the proper conditions. There are over 10,000 different cultivars, so as you might imagine the flowers can be found in many different colors and sizes. Azaleas are toxic.

Perennial Flowers: B

Baby’s Breath - A genus of the Carnation family, Baby's Breath grows natively in both the northern and southern hemispheres. It is used in floral arrangements, as well as in traditional medicine. Baby's breath is an herbaceous perennial.

Bachelor’s Button - Also known as the perennial cornflower, the variety I'm specifically interested in is Centaurea Montana. This unusual flower has an unusual pattern of blue to purple hued petals, while some varieties have white petals. Bachelor's Button can only be found in the northern half of the world. Centaurea is sometimes considered an invasive plant due to its tendency to out-compete other plants. Cultivation is recommended for container gardens.

Bearded Iris - Distinct from other Iris varieties, this flower has "beards" on its lower petals. Like other Iris, the Bearded Iris can be grown from a bulb or from a rhizome. It is so popular among gardeners that there are over 30,000 cultivars of the Tall Bearded Iris!

Bee Balm - Native to North America, the Bee Balm flower is a prized specimen by humans, bees, and hummingbirds. The striking pink to red tubular petals stand out among the other green foliage in a garden.

Begonia - Begonias are one of the most widely cultivated perennial flowers in the Southern United States, and elsewhere when kept as a houseplant or grown as an annual. There are nearly 1,800 different species of Begonias, with new cultivars hitting the market all the time.

Belladonna Lily - A South African native, Belladonna Lily has become naturalized in the rest of the world where it is well tolerated, including warmer parts of North, Central, and South America, as well as Australia and Asia. Belladonna Lily is a fragrant, large and showy flower.

Bellis Perennis - Sometimes referred to as the English Daisy or the Common Daisy, Bellis Perennis is the most archetypal species of Daisy. It is characterized by small, rounded white petals with a golden yellow floret.

Bellflower - Also called Campanula, bright blue bellflowers make their debut in the peak of Summer. These five-pointed, star-shaped beauties grow best in areas that have mild summer days and cool nights.

Bidens Gardneri - This is another member of the Daisy family native to Brazil. Bidens Gardneri has brightly colored orange-red petals and florets, and yellow nectaries.

Bergenia - This is a clumping, evergreen perennial flower that also has large, oval leaves at its base. Bergenia's leaves change color in the fall from green to red. The flowers range in color from white to red, although most are a shade of pink. Bergenia can grow in nearly any climate, hardy to as low as -35 F and up to 115 F.

Blackberry Lily - Perhaps better known as the leopard flower, blackberry lilies' flowers are a mottled orange/red/yellow masterpiece of a art. They are named for the cluster of seed pods that appears in the autumn, which resembles a blackberry. It is possibly useful in medicine, though some studies seem to indicate it does not have medicinal properties.

Black-Eyed Susan - Bright yellow petals surrounding a brown/black cluster of florets make the Black-Eyed Susan one of the most distinctive perennials grown by gardeners today. There are also varieties which have different colored petals, including red and brown.

Blanket Flower - This is another member of the daisy family. Blanket flowers have red petals with bright yellow tips which resemble a fiery desert sunset. These flowers grow in full sun and are drought tolerant. They are called blanket flowers because the dense foliage will be covered in large flowers, like a blanket of color.

Bleeding Heart - Bleeding Hearts are a favorite of many gardeners and flower enthusiasts. The wonderful pink and white clusters of heart-shaped flowers are hardy enough to grow without intervention; however, they are heavy feeders and will require regular fertilizing to reach their full potential.

Bleeding Heart

Bluebell - Found in England and western Europe, Bluebells are commonly cultivated in perennial flower gardens for their showy blooms. The inflorescences are racemes, comprised of dainty bell-shaped blue flowers. The flowers are potentially useful in medicine and have been found to produce a variety of medicinal compounds.

Blue-Eyed Grass - A member of the iris family, this flower looks like grass but is not truly so. This plant gets its name from the fantastic blue lowers that it grows. Though often blue, the flowers can also be many different shades of white, yellow or purple.

Blue Butterfly Bush - Dark blue flowers on the Blue Butterfly Bush attract butterflies and other pollinators with both form and fragrance. This plant will do best in warmer climates but can tolerate cold climates as well. It will die and re-grow each spring in cold regions.

Borage - Better known as the starflower, Borage is a perennial herb which is cautiously used as a component in traditional medicine. It has been found that Borage may be toxic to the liver, and may also have carcinogenic properties. Nevertheless, Borage is recommended by some naturopathic doctors and herbalists in the treatment of hormonal disorders.

Bracteantha Bracteata - This is another member of the daisy family which grows as a woody perennial with bright yellow flowers. This extremely popular plant is grown by gardeners all over the world.

Bromeliad - Bromeliads, as they are known to house plant enthusiasts, are tropical plants with colorful perennial flowers, typically red, pink, purple, orange or yellow in color growing from the center of a dense layer of dark green foliage. In fact, the Bromeliad family contains over 3400 different species, with an incredibly diverse appearance across each species. Some bromeliads are over 30 feet tall, while others have flowers that are less than 1/8 of an inch wide. This perennial genus includes the pineapple plant, and bromeliads have been cultivated since at least the Aztec civilization, for both food and textiles.

Browallia Americana - Also known as the Amethyst Flower, Browallia Americana is native to Latin America. The flowers are small, bluish-purple petaled with a ring of white at the center of the blossom.

Bush Morning Glory - Native to North America, the Bush Morning Glory is a lower-growing variety of Morning Glory that is great for smaller gardens. The mounding plant rarely grows beyond 2' in height, yet still produces the stunning, tri-colored blue yellow and white flowers you're looking for in a true Morning Glory. As with the vine-variety, there are many different cultivars with different colored flowers to choose from.

Butterfly Bush - Distinctive from the Blue Butterfly Bush, this flowering plant has purple-colored flowers which are fragrant and attractive. They are grown as ornamentals, and also to attract pollinators, such as butterflies, to flower gardens.

Perennial Flowers: C

Calendula - Sometimes known as Marigolds, Calendula is another member of the Daisy family which is widely cultivated. This amazingly useful flower is made into dyes, used as an ingredient in Mediterranean cuisine, and is used in both traditional and modern medicine.

California Poppy - This State Flower of California is a tall-growing perennial with yellow to red flowers that grow in enormous fields throughout the western United States. California Poppies are not only beautiful, but they are also used medicinally and recreationally as a sedative or a sleeping aid. This Poppy does not contain Opium like it's more infamous cousin.

Cardinal Flower - Named for its bright red flowers, whose color is reminiscent of a male Cardinal's feathers, the Cardinal Flower grows wild throughout the southern United States, as well as Central America. This perennial grows up to four feet tall and naturally thrives along the muddy banks of swamps.

Carnation Flower - This famous flower has been cultivated for at least two millennia. Depending on the era in time, the Carnation was used to symbolize anything from love to luck to royalty. They can be found in any color except for blue. Carnations have a wonderful fragrance that many modern cultivars seem to be lacking. Many of the most beautiful, colorful varieties of Carnation have no fragrance at all!

Carnation

Catmint - A member of the mint family, Catmint grows tall stalks with small clusters of delicate purple flowers which are tubular-shaped. Catmint is similar to Catnip, except that Catmint is more favored in gardens for its ornamental beauty, whereas Catnip can resemble a weed and become invasive to other plants.

Chamomile - Who isn't familiar with this perennial herb? Chamomile has been cultivated for thousands of years for its skin and soul-soothing properties. Members of the daisy family, only two of the ten species of Chamomile are medicinally valuable in herbal remedies.

Cherry Bush - Cherry Bushes are simply busing versions of the more familiar tree cherry. The Cherry Bush can be maintained as a shrub, and the delicious fruit is easier to harvest than cherries from trees. Bush cherries are best grown in pairs or groups to ensure a bountiful harvest; not all are self-pollinators. These bushes are covered in beautiful cherry blossoms in the early spring.

Chrysanthemum - Native to Eurasia and Asia, Chrysanthemums are members of the daisy family and are sometimes referred to as Mums. Though beautiful and coveted by gardeners and florists, Chrysanthemums are also incredibly useful to several industries. Chrysanthemums are used to make Pyrethrum, which is an important and widely used pesticide.

Clematis - Beautiful is the only way to describe Clematis since there are so many different cultivars that it becomes impossible to give a single description. Some cultivars have six flower petals, others have five, others have four, and even others have countless florets. Some flowers are trumpet-shaped. Others have tendril-like petals. Clematis is a widely-defined genus with many different colored, sized and shaped flowers. They are climbers and can be trained to grow up a trellis.

Columnea - These Carribbean natives are also called "Flying Goldfish" because of their fish-shaped blossoms. Colomnea is a genus of plants with over 200 species. They are tropical plants with red, yellow or orange flowers which are slightly reminescent of peace lilies in their shape. They are a favorite houseplant due to their ability to tolerate low-light conditions.

Columbine - Growing in highlands through the Northern Hemisphere, the Columbine is a five-petaled, five-pistil flower which produces nectar that is irresistible to hummingbirds. This hardy flower was once used by Native Americans in cooking, though the practice of using Columbine as food has waned due to the likelihood of toxicity occurring if too much is eaten.

Comfrey - Comfrey is an herbaceous perennial which is cultivated for their use in herbal medicine and as a component in organic fertilizer. Comfrey sends up long stems which are capped by inflorescences of colorful bell-shaped flowers. The flowers may be purple, blue, cream, or multicolred.

Coneflower - Coneflowers are perennials which are members of the Daisy family. Coneflowers include Black-Eyed Susans, Echinacea, and some prairie sunflowers. In Australia, a different perennial shrub with beautiful purple florets is referred to as a Coneflower, though they are more popularly known as "drumstick flowers."

Coral Bells - Now grown as an ornamental perennial flower in gardens, Coral Bells were once prized for their root which was used as a medicine and treatment for the symptoms of Syphilis.

Coreopsis - With stunning mounds of bright yellow flowers, you should not be surprised to find out that this is yet another member of the Daisy family. Coreopsis (all varieties) are the state flowers of Florida.

Cranesbill - Also known as Geraniums, though not the flower bedding Geraniums you'd typically associate with the namesake, Cranesbills get their name from their Crane's Bill-shaped seed pods.

Creeping Forget Me Not - Creeping Forget Me Not have blue to purple flowers with a yellow center that grows low along the ground. This is a wildflower in Ireland and England. They grow rhizomes which help it to spread across the surface of the soil.

Creeping Phlox - Like other creepers, Creeping Phlox is a beautiful ground cover that is cultivated in gardens and used a border flower in container gardens. Creeping phlox is covered in tiny flowers and comes in every color, including variegated-color varieties.

Creeping Zinnia - Another member of the Daisy family, Creeping Zinnias are native to Mexico. These flowers can cover fields and grow clusters of tiny yellow flowers with a black cluster of florets dotting the center of each blossom.

Crocosmia Lucifer - These bright red flowers grow in clusters similar to Bleeding Hearts. They are attractive to pollinators, including hummingbirds, and naturally grow in clumps.

Crocus Longiflorus - Longiflorus is also called the Italian Crocus due to its native habitat in the Mediterranean country. These flowers are purple with light and dark stripes on the petals and have bright yellow stamen.

Perennial Flowers: D

Daffodil - These six-petaled flowers have been known to man since antiquity. Daffodils are not only prized for their beauty, but were historicallly used as a medicine for thousands of years. Daffodils are also known as Narcissus.

Daffodil

Dahlia - Dahlias are yet another member of the Daisy family. Dahlias have single-flowered stems which are crowned by beautiful rosette-shaped flowers or loose-petaled flowers. They come in many sizes and colors. The Dahlia is the official flower of Mexico and has been traditionally used as an ingredient in authentic Oxacan cuisine.

Daisy - The Daisy is one of the most abundant perennial flowers, with many thousands of varieties and cultivars. Daisies are easy to grow and there are many different colors, sizes and shapes to choose from. The Daisy family is the largest family of flowers, with well over 20,000 species.

Dandelion - Dandelions are herbaceous perennials which have small, yellow to orange flowers with many small florets. Dandelions are used in herbal medicine as a liver tonic. The roots of dandelion are roasted and used to create a delicious alternative to coffee. Dandelions are often treated as an invasive species due to it's tendency to pop up in lawns and gardens where it is unwanted.

Daphne Odora - Daphne Odora is native to China and is an evergreen shrub prized for it's highly scented perennial flowers. The plant only survives for around a decade, and may die sooner if the roots are disturbed during transplant.

Day Lily - Day lilies are specifically cultivated for their beautiful flowers. Day lilies open for a day, then die during the night. The next day, the flower is replaced with a new bloom. Some varities do the opposite, opening during the night hours and dying back during the day. The flowers are prized for their flavor in Chinese cuisine.

Delphinium - There are over 300 species of Delphinium. Delphinium can be found in alpine regions bearing red, white, blue and purple flower across mountainsides and valleys. They are similar to Lupines and grow tall, cone-shaped clusters of brightly-colored flowers.

Desert Rose - The desert rose is grown as a bonsai plant or generally a houseplant. Native to arid deserts in Africa, this perennial beauty has a dark secret - the sap from this plant is so poisonous, it is used to tip arrows for killing large game by hunters in Africa.

Dianthus - Native to Europe and Asia, these clusters of five-petaled, spiky-tipped flowers are a favorite in gardens where its breathtaking color is highly desired. These flowers come in purple, red and white varieties, with some having more impressively-shaped petals and others having variegated color patterns. During its peak, the Dianthus plant will resemble a mound of colorful flowers, which can nearly block out its foliage from view.

Diascia - Native to South Africa and other Southern African Countries, the Diascia is a beautiful pink to red flower which grows around a foot tall and is cultivated as an ornamental bedding flower. Certain bees like Diascia so much that they appear to have "co-evolved" with the plant by growing extra long hair on their legs in order to collect the Diascia oil which they use to feed their larvae.

Dietes Grandiflora - Another South African native, Dietes Grandiflora has brilliant white flowers with yellow and purple hues toward the center of each bloom. Dietes Grandiflora is also called the "Fairy Iris."

Dutch Iris - This variety of Iris was popular to the Dutch, famous for their greenhouse horticulture because it could be forced to flower earlier than other varieties. The four inch long flowers can be blue, white or yellow, and rest at the tip of stalks that are up to two feet long.

To continue reading this list of perennial flowers, visit the following pages:
      I-L       M-P       Q-T       U-Z

Comments

Popular posts from this blog

Medicinal Perennial Flowers and Herbs, And Their Healing Properties

In studying perennial flowers, one of the most amazing things I have found is the high number of herbs and flowers which have medicinal properties. Some of these herbaceous plants are valued for their inherent pharmacological compounds, while others are wholly used in herbal and traditional remedies, both internally and externally. There are many medicinal uses for flowers, from the treatment of simple skin conditions to treating complex conditions such as cancer.This list of medicinal herbs and flowers will include pictures and descriptions of each perennial, whenever possible. This page is designed as an educational resource and is not intended to supplant the advice of your doctor or a medical professional. Furthermore, some toxic flowers could be easily misidentified as medicinal ones, so please consult with a professional herbalist or buy your herbs from a trusted seller if you intend to experiment with them yourself. Finally, it is important to note that when dealing with herbs,…