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Medicinal Perennial Flowers and Herbs, And Their Healing Properties

In studying perennial flowers, one of the most amazing things I have found is the high number of herbs and flowers which have medicinal properties. Some of these herbaceous plants are valued for their inherent pharmacological compounds, while others are wholly used in herbal and traditional remedies, both internally and externally. There are many medicinal uses for flowers, from the treatment of simple skin conditions to treating complex conditions such as cancer.

This list of medicinal herbs and flowers will include pictures and descriptions of each perennial, whenever possible. This page is designed as an educational resource and is not intended to supplant the advice of your doctor or a medical professional. Furthermore, some toxic flowers could be easily misidentified as medicinal ones, so please consult with a professional herbalist or buy your herbs from a trusted seller if you intend to experiment with them yourself. Finally, it is important to note that when dealing with herbs, the difference between a medicine and a poison is dosage - almost all of these herbs, including the relatively benign ones, can be toxic in high amounts. Common sense, caution, and consent from your doctor are all recommended before using any perennial flowers medicinally.

Medicinal Flowers And Their Uses

Baby's Breath - Known for their dainty white flowers that are used in floral arrangements, Baby's Breath plants are herbaceous perennials which are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. TCM recommends Baby's Breath tea to treat liver disorders, and also as an aid in detoxification. In the western world, saponins are extracted from Baby's Breath, which has many different medicinal uses such as in studying the immune system and even in the production of vaccines.

baby's breath

Blackberry Lily - Also known as the leopard lily for its distinct flowers, the Blackberry Lily is used in Traditional Chinese Medicine in the treatment of sore throats, especially sore throats accompanied by phlegm. Proponents of TCM believe that this flower has phlegm-removing properties. In modern medicine, Blackberry Lily is noted to have anti-inflammatory properties, as well as anti-viral and anti-bacterial properties.

Bluebell - Bluebells are toxic when fresh and must be dried before using them medicinally. Bluebells have diuretic and astringent properties which make them useful for treating water retention and swelling. It was once known as a powerful treatment for Leucorrhea. Bluebells are full of inulin and do not naturally form starch. Native Americans from the Cheyenne tribe once used this perennial herb to treat smallpox and measles, which were old-world diseases to which the Cheyenne had no immunity. Modern science disputes the efficacy of Bluebell in treating these serious diseases.


Borage - Borage is also known as the Starflower because it has tiny blue, star-shaped flowers. Externally, Borage is said to be beneficial in treating eczema and dermatitis. Borage Seed Oil is used to treat arthritis, gingivitis, PMS, asthma, and many other conditions. Borage is high in GLA, or Gamma Linolenic Acid, which is naturally anti-inflammatory. Circumstantial evidence suggests that Borage is especially useful in treating chronic respiratory conditions when used alongside prescription medication; however, due to the presence of carcinogenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Borage, long-term use is not recommended. Furthermore, people with blood disorders such as anemia or liver conditions are encouraged to find an alternative, as the pyrrolizidine alkaloids can worsen their conditions.


Calendula - Calendula's flowers are used to create linaments, lotions and ointments which are used externally in treating anal fissures, diaper rash, hemorrhoids, vaginal atrophy, and other skin conditions. Internally, Calendula is useful for its antibacterial qualities, and is used to treat gingivitis, sore throats, and stomach ulcers. Unlike other marigold species which are cultivated for ornamental use only, Calendula has specific chemicals which may be helpful in regrowing damaged tissue. Some people assert that calendula can further be used in treating varicose veins, muscle spasms, promoting menstruation, and treating certain forms of cancer, due to its regenerative properties, though there is little if any evidence to support those claims.

California Poppy - California's state flower, the California Poppy, has long been used in folk remedies to treat insomnia, chronic pain, anxiety, and depression. Furthermore, some claim that it can be used in treating various diseases of the bladder, kidneys, and liver, though there is insufficient scientific evidence to support that claim. California Poppies have certain chemicals which promote relaxation, though it is important to note that this Poppy does not contain opium or narcotic chemicals. Use of California Poppies is relatively safe when it is used for a short period of time. Long-term use is said to cause disruption of natural sleeping patterns, so users who need it for insomnia should regularly rotate the herbs they use to avoid dependence and maintain tolerance.

california poppy

Catmint - Catmint or Catnip has long been used for its many medicinal properties. Catnip is used as a carminative to relieve painful gas pressure. It is said to have many other uses, including inducing menstruation, cooling the body, and inducing vomiting when taken in large doses. These claims are supported by anecdotal evidence over hundreds of years. Catnip's flowering tops are made into an infusion, where slightly-cooler-than-boiling water is poured over the perennial flowers, and the mixture is left to steep for 15 minutes.

Chamomile - Chamomile is a widely-cultivated herb which is enjoyed as a soothing herbal tea. Chamomile is said to help relieve anxiety, upset stomach, and diarrhea. Furthermore, external application of Chamomile-infused water is said to aid in treating hemorrhoids and skin wounds. In fact, the National Institute of Health has a scholarly article on their website which lists no less than 19 separate, scientifically-proven benefits of chamomile.


Comfrey - Comfrey has long been used to make both medicine and plant food. When used externally, comfrey is said to help relieve the painful symptoms of arthritis, joint sprains and back pain. Internally, the use of Comfrey is controversial, as the plant's roots are high in pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which are poisonous, carcinogenic and may damage the liver. Nevertheless, many have taken Comfrey tea to treat upset stomachs, diarrhea, bronchitis, heavy menstruation, and gingivitis.


Coral Bells - Coral Bells were used by Native Americans in treating some symptoms of Syphilis and other serious diseases. The Navajo believed that this plant was a cure-all and even used it to treat pain. Coral Bells are a member of the Saxifrage (sedum) family known also as alumroot, which is named for the roots astringent properties. Taken internally, it will constrict the mucous membranes along the surface of the digestive tract.

Daffodil - The iconic Daffodil is used medicinally, both externally and internally, despite serious safety concerns. Daffodil is said to be highly effective in treating asthma and other respiratory conditions such as Whooping Cough when taken internally. Externally, it is made into a paste to treat skin disorders, such as eczema, skin burns and septic wounds. Despite these amazing claims, use of Daffodil is not recommended; it can cause fainting, diarrhea, lung collapse and even death.

Dandelion - To herbalists, Dandelion is one of the most prized treatments in their arsenal. Dandelion roots, leaves and flowers are commonly used to aid in liver detoxification, though there isn't any substantial evidence backing this claim. Dandelion is also made into a tea, which is used to treat an upset stomach, painful gas, and constipation. Many use dandelion externally to treat skin conditions and inflammation. Dandelion is also used in folk remedies for treating cancer, tonsilitis, gallstones and viral infections.


Echinacea - Many people are familiar with Echinacea due to its recent popularity in mainstream culture, but this perennial herb was used medicinally by the Indigenous Americans for at least hundreds of years. These purple coneflowers are native to the Rocky Mountains in the United States. Echinacea is said to enhance the immune system, and this claim is so widely accepted that vitamin and supplement companies worldwide add Echinacea to their formulae. It is believed that Echinacea helps in fighting colds and viral infections. Some scientific research has failed to find any evidence that Echinacea has immuno-enhancing properties; nevertheless, there are other studies which show it might be effective in shortening the duration and lessening the symptoms of a cold. Echinacea is also used to treat depression, low white cell counts, HIV, Herpes, Tonsillitis, and many other ailments, though more scientific research is currently needed to substantiate its use for these maladies.

Feverfew - These little white and yellow flowers are used to treat migraine headaches, and preliminary research shows that they are most effective in those who chronically suffer from migraines. Feverfew is also used externally to treat itching and bug bites, as well as psoriasis and other skin conditions. Additionally, feverfew is said to aid in lessening the severity of toothaches when the powdered herb is applied directly to the affected tooth.


Figwort - Figwort is an herb which is orally administered as a diuretic, or as an anti-inflammatory when applied topically. Figwort can be applied as an ointment to treat eczema, psoriasis or even hemorrhoids, though there is little scientific research to back these claims. At one time in history, Figwort was used as a traditional medicine in treating Tuberculosis, though it is not believed in modern times to be an effective remedy for that condition.

Four O'Clock Flower - There is some controversy in adding this perennial to the list of medicinal flowers. Also known as the Marvel of Peru, the Four O'Clock Flower is noted to have once been used as a medicine by the Aztec culture; however, there is anecdotal evidence that every part of this plant is poisonous. Powder from the dried root of this flower is used internally to treat an upset stomach caused by overeating. Scientific research shows that there are many valuable alkaloids, proteins, and steroidal compounds in the Four O'Clock Flower to warrant further investigation into the uses of this beautiful plant.

Foxglove - Foxglove is a perennial herb with gorgeous tubular flowers that are commonly grown as ornamental garden plants. Foxglove is poisonous and should not be taken as an herbal remedy; however, when administered by a doctor, compounds in Foxglove are highly effective in treating water retention caused by congestive heart failure and are also helpful in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmia.


French Marigold - These vivid-orange cousins of the Calendula flower are said to be effective in treating severe constipation. Furthermore, these flowers are used to treat indigestion, and allegedly as an ingredient for a soothing eyewash. French Marigolds are most commonly brewed into a tea by the process of infusion, where the flowers are not subjected to the high temperature of boiling water.

Geum Chiloense - Geum Chiloense is a perennial rose which grows in the mountainous regions of Chile. The traditional peoples of Chile use this flower as a remedy for toothaches, upset stomach, swollen prostates and irregular menstrual cycles. Its potential use in medicine seems to require further study, as Geum has yet to catch on with most herbalists from other regions.

Gardenia - In herbal medicine, Gardenia enjoys a reputation as a panacea. It is said to be beneficial in treating everything from arthritis, nerve pain, cancer, depression, anxiety, diabetes, gallbladder disease, pancreatitis, diabetes and more. Gardenias have not been thoroughly studied for their medicinal value, though they are prized for their fragrant, showy white flowers. Some studies suggest that chemicals found in Gardenia may help to limit insulin resistance, as well as reduce blood triglycerides and cholesterol.


Heather - Heather is used in herbal medicine to treat arthritis, gout, prostate enlargement, kidney stones and inflammation in the urinary tract by reducing the levels of uric acid in the body. It is also used to treat colds, skin conditions and diarrhea. The flowering tips of this perennial herb are brewed into a strong infusion, which can be administered orally or used externally for skin conditions. Heather has many valuable compounds, including an alkaloid, two flavonoids, and it is also rich in tannins.


Helichrysum - Helichrysum flowers are little golden blossoms which have many medicinal uses. Valued since Ancient Greece, Helichrysums are used internally and externally for a wide range of conditions. Most notably, it is said that helichrysum essential oil can be used to prevent spasms, such as uncontrollable coughing and hiccups. Furthermore, a diluted oil of helichrysum can be applied topically to treat skin conditions, sun damage, infections, and hemorrhoids. Internally, Helichrysum can also be used to treat diarrhea, high cholesterol, and stimulate the liver. As with many herbs on this list, there is a lack of hard scientific data to substantiate these purported benefits. Anecdotally, the author of this article uses diluted helichrysum oil in a carrier of avocado oil to treat sun damage on his skin.

Hibiscus - Some research indicates that Hibiscus tea may be more effective in treating high blood pressure than commonly prescribed drugs. Hibiscus is also said to aid in lowering cholesterol, treating bladder infections, and fighting general infections such as the common cold. According to WebMD, a preliminary study showed that senior citizens with urinary catheters who regularly drank hibiscus tea were more than 35% less likely to suffer from bladder infections than those who did not drink the tea.


Hollyhock - Hollyhock is used internally and externally in herbal medicine. Internally, Hollyhock is taken as a tea to treat asthma and bronchitis. Externally, it is alleged that a Hollyhock poultice can aid in the healing of ulcers. Further scientific studies are needed to warrant these claims. Anecdotal evidence of Hollyhock's efficacy as medicine is insufficient and sparse.


Iberis - Iberis is used in TCM and homeopathic medicine to help regulate the heart, especially in those who have recently suffered from a bout of influenza. In herbal medicine, it is said to be beneficial in treating asthma, bronchitis and other respiratory conditions. Furthermore, the plant possesses properties which might make it an effective remedy for rheumatism.

Impatiens - There are several species of Impatiens which may be used as medicine, with Impatiens Balsamina being the most notable. In Asian countries, this perennial is prescribed to those with fractures, arthritis, and gout due to its high mineral content. Elsewhere, Balsamina is used to treat gastritis, and in Vietnam, it is used as a shampoo to stimulate hair growth. Scientific investigation has shown that extracts from Balsamina can fight antibiotic-resistant H. Pylori bacteria, as well as reduce testosterone-limiting enzymes in the digestive tract.


Indigo - Little is scientifically known about the medicinal values of Indigo, but anecdotal evidence goes back hundreds of years. This perennial herb is believed to be useful for treating cancer, bites from venomous scorpions, and liver disorders. Some studies also indicate that an extract made with Indigo may possess anti-inflammatory properties.

Lavender - Lavender is commonly used in herbal remedies to treat anxiety, insomnia, depression and pain. Externally, lavender is beneficial for treating inflamed skin and is also said to aid in regrowing hair when combined with other herbs. Lavender should be avoided by young boys, as it may cause them to develop gynecomastia. Lavender can, purportedly, disrupt the hormonal balance in men so should be used cautiously.


Lemon Balm - Lemon Balm is a fragrant perennial herb with many alleged medicinal uses. Lemon Balm is said to help melt away stress, calm anxiety, and relieve insomnia. Externally, this herb is used to treat herpes and cold sores, though scientific validation of this treatment is lacking. Further investigation is needed, but it also seems that lemon balm extracts may help those suffering from Alzheimers Disease by inhibiting cholinesterase.

Lobelia - Lobelia is a commonly used herb, although scientific study seems to indicate it may not have as much value as once thought. Lobelia was once smoked to help those suffering from Nicotine withdrawal due to the cessation of smoking cigarettes, though this practice is rare today. In fact, the U.S. prohibits the addition of Lobelia in smoking cessation products. Lobelia, taken internally as a tea, is thought to help respiratory conditions by thinning the mucus, thus aiding in expectoration. Additional scientific research is needed to substantiate these claims.

Malva - Also known as Mallow, Malva is used by herbalists to treat topical pain due to its analgesic properties. It is commonly applied as an extract to bug bites, sunburns, and rashes. Internally, Mallow is said to strengthen the immune system, combat the signs of aging, and aid in digestion.


Marigold - Marigolds are generally used in herbal medicine for their anti-inflammatory qualities, as well as their nutritional value, as the flowers are said to be high in vitamin C. Marigolds are alleged to be efficacious in limiting or even reducing tumor development in breast cancer, according to anecdotal evidence. More scientific research would be needed to validate such a claim.


Meadowsweet - Meadowsweet is naturally rich in tannins, and also contains some salicylates, from which aspirin is derived. Meadowsweet is traditionally used internally to treat heartburn, stomach ulcers, bronchitis and kidney infections. Meadowsweet can be dangerous if taken for an extended period of time and can cause shortness of breath, blood in the stool, vomiting and skin rashes when it is used to the point of toxicity.


Mimosa - Mimosa is an herb that is valuable to both western herbalism and eastern philosophies of TCM. Mimosa is said to be effective in treating depression, anxiety, and stress. Furthermore, it may contain important anti-cancer properties that make it potentially effective in treating specific cancers, including gastric, skin, prostate and uterine cancer.


Nasturtium - Nasturtium is typically used to treat urinary tract infections and bronchitis. Though it may be beneficial for those suffering from those conditions, caution must be taken for those who have kidney disease or gastric ulcers, as Nasturtium may exacerbate these conditions.


Oenothera - Oenothera is better known as the Evening Primrose. Evening Primrose oil is used to treat a very wide variety of conditions. Scientific research indicates that Evening Primrose oil may be effective for treating osteoporosis and diabetic nerve damage. As an herbal remedy, Oenothera is used for asthma, cancer, acne, infant development, easing the symptoms of pregnancy, dry eyes, diaper rash, arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and other conditions as well. Evening Primrose is not safe for use for those with blood disorders, such as anemia, as it may increase the risk of bleeding.

Orchid - There are at least five separate species of Orchid which may be medicinally valuable. Orchids have been used in TCM for hundreds of years, as well as in Turkey where the flowers are made into a beverage for treating sore throat. Orchids may be an effective medicine for fighting cancer, sore throats, gum disease, and other bacterial infections. Scientific studies are ongoing.


Oriental Poppy - The Oriental Poppy is a mildly poisonous plant which should not be used as medicine by anyone except qualified healthcare practitioners. The flowers from this perennial are used to induce sweating, as an aid to detoxification.

Oriental Poppy

Passionflower - Though commonly taken for its supposed sedative properties, scientific studies seem to indicate that Passionflower is best used for the treatment of anxiety and narcotic withdrawal. Passionflowers are used in herbal medicine to treat a wide range of conditions, including asthma, high blood pressure, hemorrhoids, and burns. Passionflowers should be taken with caution, as they may cause mild inebriation, drowsiness, confusion and altered consciousness.


Peony - The use of Peony as a medicine is possibly dangerous. Peony can be used to force menstruation, induce abortion, and reduce menstrual cramps, though people also use it to treat gout, migraines, liver cirrhosis, and a whole range of other conditions. Peony should not be used for longer than one month. The root and flowers are both used to make medicine.


Pincushion Flower - Also known as Scabiosa, this flower was historically used to treat Scabies, though it is no longer used for that purpose. Pincushion Flowers are best cultivated for their ornamental qualities. There is not enough data, other than historical anecdotes, to warrant experimentation; scientific study is needed.

Rhododendron - Rhododendron flowers are toxic. They are used in traditional medicine to relieve pain, including nerve pain, pain from gout and arthritis, and sciatica. Bees make honey after feeding on Rhododendron flowers which causes inebriation and even hallucinations in those who eat the honey. In Asia, it is known as "Mad Honey."


Rose - Roses are amazingly aromatic, but did you know that these perennial flowers can also be enjoyed as a medicine? Aromatherapists use rose oil to treat various conditions of the digestive system, including liver disorders and nausea. In herbal medicine, rose petals are brewed in a tea which is alleged to benefit the gallbladder and aid in soothing sore throats. Externally, roses can be used to treat swollen and broken capillaries and also helps to improve hair growth.


Russian Sage - An herbaceous perennial, Russian Sage is traditionally used to reduce fevers. It is also believed to ease the symptoms of indigestion, as well as lessen the severity of a cold.

Spirea - The flowers and foliage of Spirea are brewed into a tea, which contains several salicylates which are beneficial in the treatment of pain. Unlike aspirin, the Salicylate profile of Spirea does not have known side effects. It is also used for treating certain stomach conditions, where aspirin is not effective.

St. John's Wort - This highly fragrant herb and its beautiful flowers are one of the most famous herbal remedies, commonly used to treat depression, anxiety, and insomnia. Other uses of St. John's Wort include treating Diabetic Nerve Pain, Burning Mouth Syndrom, and Irritable Bowel Syndrome. The claims are numerous, but further scientific proof is still needed to say whether or not St. John's Wort is effective in treating any of these conditions.

St. John's Wort

Star of Bethlehem - The Star of Bethlehem is used to treat Congestive Heart Failure, despite warnings that the use of this perennial herb may be dangerous. This flower's bulbs contains cardiac glycosides, which are the same compounds found in the prescription drug Digoxin. Use of this flower as medicine is not recommended and may be detrimental to health and life alike, inducing heart attacks and causing arrhythmias.

Star of Bethlehem

Tagetes Erecta - Tagetes Erecta, better known as the Mexican Marigold or Aztec Marigold, is used to treat stomach disorders, dysentery, intestinal parasites and is said to protect against miscarriage. The flowers are also prepared for external use in ointments that are applied to ulcers and other sores. Tagetes is known to cause skin rashes on contact and should be avoided by those who are sensitive to it.

Uva Ursi - Uva Ursi is most commonly used to treat disorders of the urinary system. Uva Ursi is said to reduce bacteria and inflammation in the urinary tract and bladder and stimulates urination and elimination of excess fluid. It can cause urine discoloration and should not be taken for prolonged periods of time since it can also cause liver damage.

Valerian - The aromatic roots of the Valerian plant have been used for centuries to treat insomnia. Valerian is also used to treat other conditions, such as anxiety, hypochondria, joint pain, menopause, and migraines. Valerian can cause drowsiness and dizziness, and in some individuals may exacerbate insomnia. Valerian should be used with caution, as side effects such as excited behavior and headaches have been noted, and prolonged use can cause dependence.

Verbena - Verbena naturally contains certain chemicals which aid in reducing inflammation; therefore, the uses of Verbena are numerous. This flower is used to treat respiratory tract diseases, asthma, hysteria, exhaustion, depression, digestive system issues including gallbladder disease, and is also used externally in the treatment of wounds and abscesses. More scientific research is needed to validate these claims.


Veronica - This perennial flower may contain compounds which help the lining of the stomach heal itself. Veronica is effective in treating stomach ulcers and other digestive maladies. Veronica is also used to induce sweating, purify the blood, and externally to treat chronic skin conditions. More research is needed to determine the safety of using this perennial flower.

Violet - The species commonly known as "Sweet Violet" is used to treat respiratory conditions and abdominal pain. It contains chemicals which help to thin mucus, making it easier to cough up. Externally, Violets may be used in treating joint pain and skin conditions, and even prostate swelling. Anecdotal evidence also suggests that Sweet Violets, when prepared as a tea, might relieve the symptoms of depression.


Water Hyacinth - If carefully cultivated, water hyacinths are believed to be valuable for detoxification. Consumption of this herbaceous perennial can cause persistent itching. Water Hyacinths are capable of absorbing toxic chemicals from the water, including mercury, lead, lethal amounts of toxic fertilizers and radioactive-element strontium 90. Wild Hyacinths should not be consumed, although they are still served as a vegetable in some cultures.

Water Hyacinth

Yarrow - This perennial herb is used to induce sweating, reduce symptoms of colds and seasonal allergies, reduce diarrhea, and relieve toothaches. Yarrow is also effective in treating hemorrhoids. The herb may slow blood clotting and should not be used by those with anemia or other blood disorders.


Yellow Bell - The compounds in this beautiful flower have many promising properties. It is believed that Yellow Bell may be used to create anti-cancer drugs, immune-system enhancing drugs, and may be used to treat jaundice and malaria. Scientific studies are ongoing.

Zephyranthes - Zephyranthes is deadly toxic and should not be used in herbal medicine by anyone other than a licensed professional. Scientists, however, believe that certain compounds found in this plant may be used for creating new medicines. In TCM, it has been used to treat breast cancer, and in Indian medicine, it is known to be beneficial for diabetics and those suffering from several other ailments.


How to Grow Medicinal Flowers

Medicinal perennial flowers and herbs can be grown in home gardens, making it affordable and easy to stock an herbal medicine chest. These herbaceous perennials need to be grown with care if they are intended for medicinal use. Medicinal plants should be grown in well-draining, compost-rich organic soil, with the exception of aquatic plants which grow in water. Plants with medicinal properties that will be used internally should be disease-free and healthy. Avoid spraying any fertilizers, pesticides, fungicides or any other chemicals directly on plants, which may absorb into the foliage, and end up in your herbal tea. Finally, take care to properly dry any herbs for long-term storage, as fresh plants will spoil quickly.

When growing medicinal plants in soil, the best results will come by propagating and growing in containers. In container gardening, complete control of the soil is possible, allowing the gardener control over growth. Furthermore, it is possible to "flush" the soil in containers through heavy watering, which is handy when too many fertilizers or other amendments are applied. Flushing the soil also allegedly removes built-up contaminants in the plant, resulting in a cleaner harvest, though some horticulturists disagree about the effectiveness of this practice.

In addition to the above advice, medicinal plants and herbs can also be grown hydroponically, aeroponically, or in hybrid systems; however, growing plants in these mediums requires more experience, equipment, and expense, in the short run, than growing in soil. Plus, these systems are more suitable for annual plants which are regularly harvested. Perennial plants will require daily attention in hydroponic systems, even when they are not producing new foliage or flowers during their dormant cycle. Therefore, my advice is to stick with organic soil and containers.

How to Use Medicinal Flowers

Medicinal flowers can be used in teas, tinctures, salves or poultices. Flowers and leaves are made into a tea through the process of infusion. Infusions are made by combining boiling water with the flowers and allowing to steep for 15-20 minutes. Roots are made into tea through the process of decoction, where the roots are boiled with water in a saucepan for 30-45 minutes.

Tinctures are made by combining alcohol with the herbs and flowers in a sealed jar and allowing them to steep for 30-60 days while shaking the jar daily. Tinctures are stronger than tea and are the best choice for long-term storage of herbs, as tinctures will remain shelf-stable for at least two years.

Lastly, for external use, poultices can be made by directly mixing powdered flowers or herbs with water or carrier oil and applying this mixture directly to the skin. A salve is made by combining a carrier oil, such as avocado oil, with herbs and flowers and then heating the mixture at a low temperature for 8-24 hours. The oil is then strained and mixed with at least 20% beeswax, by volume. Salves are recommended for treating chronic skin conditions, or for soothing dry, chapped or sunburned skin, as the beeswax seals in the healing properties of these medicinal flowers.

If you'd like to learn about other flowers, be sure to check out the alphabetical list of perennial flowers. In future posts, I will categorize these perennials based on size, hardiness, flowering season and color. Stay tuned for these posts and other informative articles in the near future.